Life cycle Adult stages • Female scales do not need to mate in order to lay eggs. Some species of scale lay eggs, others give birth to live young. • Eggs or crawlers are laid into the body cavity or into the waxy cover. • The female dies after laying eggs and eggs and crawlers may remain under her body for a few days. Bedford ECG, 1968. The biological control of red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), on citrus in South Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 31:1-15. Bedford ECG, 1969. The selection of insecticides for the integration of biological and chemical control of citrus pests. South African Citrus Journal, 431:3, 5, 7, 9-10.

Bedford ECG, 1968. The biological control of red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), on citrus in South Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 31:1-15. Bedford ECG, 1969. The selection of insecticides for the integration of biological and chemical control of citrus pests. South African Citrus Journal, 431:3, 5, 7, 9-10.